Instruction and Intervention includes programs, practices, and materials with documented efficacy, which are drawn from evidence-based findings, and align with goals and standards. Successfully implementing this element will help support the full range of learners.

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Instructional Time

To adequately prioritize and protect instructional time for reading, school leaders should design and implement a master schedule that allocates time and resources for reading instruction across all Tiers of Instruction. There should also be sufficient time allocated for delivering evidence-based reading instruction through the use of evidence-based practices.

Indicators of Success

  • Reading is a school-wide priority.
  • Administrators (principals, vice principals) are familiar with the reading research base and 5 components of reading: Phonemic awareness, alphabetic principle, accuracy and fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.
  • The master schedule allows adequate time/resources for all tiers of instruction.
  • Instructional time is allocated to address the 5 essential components of reading instruction.

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Institute of Education Sciences (IES) - What Works Clearinghouse (WWC)

This practice guide provides four recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade.

National Center on Improving Literacy

This infographic and the accompanying content explain developing skills in two areas: accurate, fluent reading and comprehending the meaning of texts. Both areas combine to create the "Simple View of Reading."

Institute of Education Sciences, Regional Education Laboratory Southeast

This document provides a roadmap to guide leaders in the implementation of evidence-based literacy practices in classrooms and schools.

University of Oregon's Center on Teaching and Learning

This webpage gives an overview of the Five Big Ideas in Beginning Reading.

Reading Rockets

This webpage describes how to structure a 90-minute reading block.

Instructional Quality

High-quality reading instruction involves the use of evidence-based practices in all tiers of instruction. It also includes providing opportunities for students to actively participate in all tiers of instruction.

Indicators of Success

  • K-5 teachers provide reading instruction that is explicit and systematic for all tiers.
  • Active engagement strategies are used in all tiers of instruction.
  • Instruction at all tiers is research-based.

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Institute of Education Sciences, Regional Education Laboratory Southeast

This document provides a roadmap to guide leaders in the implementation of evidence-based literacy practices in classrooms and schools.

Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk

This presentation describes several effective instructional practices, including explicit, systematic instruction; multiple practice opportunities; and immediate feedback.

Institute of Education Sciences (IES) - What Works Clearinghouse (WWC)

This practice guide provides four recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade.

The Center for Development and Learning

This presentation provides information on engaging all students in the learning process through the use of verbal responses, written responses, and active responses.

University of Oregon's Center on Teaching and Learning

This webpage gives an overview of the Five Big Ideas in Beginning Reading.

Instructional Adjustments

When students are not responding to instruction or intervention, instructional adjustments should be made to meet their needs. This involves providing early intervention to students who need it and considering subgroups when making instructional adjustments.

Indicators of Success

  • Differentiated reading instruction is provided for all students based on assessment data.
  • Early intervention is provided for at-risk students.
  • Considerations are made for subgroups when making instructional adjustments.

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Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR)

This tool provides information and strategies for and forming groups and differentiating instruction across grades K-3.

What Works Clearinghouse

This guide offers five specific recommendations to help educators identify struggling readers and implement evidence-based strategies to promote their reading achievement. Recommendations cover how to screen students for reading problems, design a multi-tier intervention program, adjust instruction to help struggling readers, and monitor student progress.

Institute of Education Sciences (IES) - What Works Clearinghouse (WWC)

The goal of this practice guide is to provide practical and coherent information on critical topics related to literacy instruction for English learners.

The National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorder

This website provides information regarding evidence-based practices (EBPs) that are effective when implemented correctly with students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD.)

Understood

This web-based article provides some of the supports teachers can use to help students who struggle with reading, spelling, and writing.

Tier I (Core) Instruction

Tier I (core) reading instruction should be differentiated for all students based on assessments of their current reading progress.

Indicators of Success

  • Tier I (Core) instruction occurs for 90+ uninterrupted minutes with all students.
  • The 90-minute Tier I (Core) reading block includes time for whole group and differentiated small group instruction.
  • Core reading programs are comprehensive and research-based.
  • Evidence-based practices, such as explicit and systematic instruction, are used with students at Tier I (Core).
  • Results from assessments are used to guide instructional decisions for differentiation.

Visit these Resources to Learn More

What Works Clearinghouse

This guide offers five specific recommendations to help educators identify struggling readers and implement evidence-based strategies to promote their reading achievement. Recommendations cover how to screen students for reading problems, design a multi-tier intervention program, adjust instruction to help struggling readers, and monitor student progress.

Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR)

This tool provides information and strategies for and forming groups and differentiating instruction across grades K-3.

Institute of Education Sciences, Regional Education Laboratory Southeast

This document provides a roadmap to guide leaders in the implementation of evidence-based literacy practices in classrooms and schools.

Institute of Education Sciences (IES) - What Works Clearinghouse (WWC)

This practice guide provides four recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade.

Institute of Education Sciences (IES) - What Works Clearinghouse (WWC)

This video is based on the What Works Clearinghouse recommendation to use data to inform decisions regarding differentiated reading instruction for all students.

Reading Rockets

This webpage describes how to structure a 90-minute reading block.

Sonoma County Office of Education

This guide describes how to promote inclusive and active participation through explicit or direct instruction.

Institute of Education Sciences (IES)

This rubric is a tool for evaluating reading/language arts instructional materials for grades K-5.

Tier II (Intervention) Instruction

Instruction within Tier II intervention should be systematic and delivered in small groups to students who need additional support with reading.

Indicators of Success

  • Tier II (Intervention) instruction occurs in small groups (3-8 students), for at least 30 minutes, 3-5 days per week in addition to Tier I (Core) instruction.
  • Tier II intervention is evidence-based (explicit and systematic on up to 3 foundational skills using a standardized program or practice with fidelity).
  • Multiple types of assessment data are used to determine the focus of Tier II (Intervention) instruction.

Visit these Resources to Learn More

What Works Clearinghouse

This guide offers five specific recommendations to help educators identify struggling readers and implement evidence-based strategies to promote their reading achievement. Recommendations cover how to screen students for reading problems, design a multi-tier intervention program, adjust instruction to help struggling readers, and monitor student progress.

Institute of Education Sciences, Regional Education Laboratory Southeast

This document provides a roadmap to guide leaders in the implementation of evidence-based literacy practices in classrooms and schools.

Institute of Education Sciences (IES) - What Works Clearinghouse (WWC)

This practice guide provides four recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade.

National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII)

NCII's academic intervention tools chart is intended to assist educators and families in becoming informed consumers who can select intervention tools that meet standards for technical rigor and address their specific needs.

What Works Clearinghouse

This guide recommends setting a clear goal for schoolwide data use and provides options to help educators use data effectively as they monitor students' academic progress and evaluate instructional practices.

Florida Center for Reading Research

The LEA Guide for Identifying Evidence-Based Interventions for School Improvement is intended to help Local Education Agencies (LEAs) carefully consider the evidence supporting intervention options.

Institute of Education Sciences (IES) - What Works Clearinghouse (WWC)

This video describes the What Works Clearinghouse recommendation to identify students who struggle with reading and implement evidence-based strategies to promote their reading achievement.

Tier III (Intensified Intervention) Instruction

Daily Tier III intervention should be provided to students who have severe and persistent reading needs, and those who have shown minimal progress after receiving sufficient support in Tier II intervention. Instruction at Tier III should promote the development of various components of reading proficiency and address foundational reading skill gaps using evidence-based practices and adaptations.

Indicators of Success

  • Tier III (Intensive Intervention) instruction occurs in groups of 1-3 students daily for 45-120 minutes.
  • Intensive intervention is evidence-based (explicit and systematic on up to 3 foundational skills using standardized programs and intensified practices).
  • An intensive intervention provides opportunities for extensive practice and high-quality feedback.
  • Instructional supports are integrated throughout the intensive intervention to support student cognitive processing, as appropriate, and based on student individual needs (i.e., use of student graphing, self-monitoring checklists, reward statement charts).
  • Multiple types of assessment data are used to determine the focus of Tier III (Intensive Intervention) instruction.

Visit these Resources to Learn More

What Works Clearinghouse

This guide offers five specific recommendations to help educators identify struggling readers and implement evidence-based strategies to promote their reading achievement. Recommendations cover how to screen students for reading problems, design a multi-tier intervention program, adjust instruction to help struggling readers, and monitor student progress.

Center on Instruction

This practice guide provides research-based recommendations for intensifying instruction in reading and mathematics for students with significant learning difficulties in K-12, including students with disabilities.

Institute of Education Sciences, Regional Education Laboratory Southeast

This document provides a roadmap to guide leaders in the implementation of evidence-based literacy practices in classrooms and schools.

Institute of Education Sciences (IES) - What Works Clearinghouse (WWC)

This practice guide provides four recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade.

CEEDAR Center

This module, the second in a series on intensive intervention, offers information on making data-based instructional decisions. Specifically, the resource discusses collecting and analyzing progress monitoring and diagnostic assessment data. (est. completion time: 3 hours).

National Center on Intensive Intervention

This webpage describes how to use data in an RTI framework.

National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII)

This webinar demonstrates how the Taxonomy of Intervention Intensity can support educators in systematically selecting and modifying intensive literacy interventions based on student needs.

Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk

This booklet addresses methods for intensifying instruction, including reducing group size, increasing learning time, scaffolding cognitive processes, and being more explicit and systematic.

Institute of Education Sciences (IES)

This video is based on the recommendation from What Works Clearinghouse regarding the identification of students who struggle with reading and implementing evidence-based strategies to promote their reading achievement.

Florida Center for Reading Research

The LEA Guide for Identifying Evidence-Based Interventions for School Improvement is intended to help Local Education Agencies (LEAs) carefully consider the evidence supporting intervention options.