Assessments that provide reliable and valid information about student performance and instructional implementation data are used to inform instruction in important, meaningful, and maintainable ways. Successfully implementing this element will promote schoolwide assessment and analysis of reading achievement data.

Types of Assessments

There are three major types of assessments that provide teachers and schools with important information on student reading progress and needs: Diagnostic, summative, and formative. Diagnostic assessments are measures of students’ current knowledge and skills and can be used to identify a suitable program of learning. They are administered before instruction occurs to assist in identifying appropriate instruction and interventions. Summative assessments occur after instruction and are assessments of learning. Formative assessments occur during instruction and are assessments for learning.

Indicators of Success

  • Teachers in your school use a balanced combination of formative, summative, and diagnostic assessment tools.
  • Assessment tools are valid and reliable.

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The IRIS Center

This module explores reading assessment procedures that are integral to effective Response to Intervention (RTI) implementation. It also outlines how to use progress monitoring data to determine whether a student is meeting the established performance criteria or whether more intensive intervention is needed.

National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII)

This chart provides examples of common and published diagnostic data sources that may be used in the DBI process for literacy.

National Center on Intensive Intervention

Watch this video to learn about using different types of assessments in RTI.

NCII

Part 4 of this training series provides guidance on identifying skills to target in reading interventions.

National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII)

This chart provides examples of common and published diagnostic data sources that may be used in the DBI process for literacy.

NCII

This video addresses the similarities of progress monitoring and CBM and how they are different from other types of formative assessments.

Center on Instruction

Use this guide to plan assessments for K-3 reading.

National Center on Intensive Intervention

This webpage describes how to use data in an RTI framework.

National Center on Intensive Intervention

Watch this video to learn about using different types of assessments in RTI.

Iris Center

This module explores in detail the assessment procedures integral to RTI. It also outlines how to use progress monitoring data to determine whether a student is meeting the established performance criteria or whether more intensive intervention is needed (est. completion time: 2 hours).

Screening for Reading

The purpose of screening is to identify those students who are at risk for poor learning outcomes. Screening is not diagnostic testing; it is a brief, reliable, and valid assessment to identify which students may need additional assessments, (such as progress monitoring or diagnostic assessments), or additional instructional support. The tools should demonstrate diagnostic accuracy for predicting learning outcomes.

Indicators of Success

  • Screening assessments are used to identify students at risk for poor reading outcomes.
  • Reading screening assessments are administered 2-3 times per year to all students.
  • Families are involved in the screening process and understand how to interpret the data for their child.

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National Center on Improving Literacy

This video addresses aspects of screeners for schools and districts to consider when selecting a universal screener.

Doing What Works

This video outlines the components of a schoolwide screening system and gives an example of how a school might implement a universal screening program.

National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII)

This tools chart is intended to assist educators and families in becoming informed consumers who can select assessment tools that meet standards for technical rigor and address their specific needs.

What Works Clearinghouse

This guide offers five specific recommendations to help educators identify struggling readers and implement evidence-based strategies to promote their reading achievement. Recommendations cover how to screen students for reading problems, design a multi-tier intervention program, adjust instruction to help struggling readers, and monitor student progress.

CEEDAR Center

In this Course Enhancement Module (CEM), participants will learn about intervention practices and assessments that can be integrated within a comprehensive, multi-tiered, evidence-based reading intervention program.

Iris Center

This module explores in detail the assessment procedures integral to RTI. It also outlines how to use progress monitoring data to determine whether a student is meeting the established performance criteria or whether more intensive intervention is needed (est. completion time: 2 hours).

Monitoring Reading Progress

Progress monitoring data can be used to estimate the rates of improvement, which allows for comparison to peers; identify students who are not demonstrating or making adequate progress so that instructional changes can be made; and compare the efficiency of different forms of instruction – in other words, identify the instructional approach or the intervention that lead to the greatest growth among students.

Indicators of Success

  • Progress monitoring assessments are used to evaluate whether students are responding to instruction and intervention, and to set learning goals/intervention accordingly.
  • Progress monitoring assessments are administered to students receiving intervention at regular intervals (biweekly for Tier II; weekly for Tier III).
  • Families are involved in the progress monitoring process and understand how to interpret the data for their child.

Visit these Resources to Learn More

What Works Clearinghouse

This guide offers five specific recommendations to help educators identify struggling readers and implement evidence-based strategies to promote their reading achievement. Recommendations cover how to screen students for reading problems, design a multi-tier intervention program, adjust instruction to help struggling readers, and monitor student progress.

National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII)

This tools chart is intended to assist educators and families in becoming informed consumers who can select assessment tools that meet standards for technical rigor and address their specific needs.

Implementation Data

Implementation data can support a school in examining the fidelity to which practices, programs, and systems are being implemented school-wide, as intended. School leaders can collect implementation data to assess fidelity to MTSS essential elements, fidelity to language and literacy practices, fidelity to professional development structures, as well as family engagement.

Indicators of Success

  • Implementation/fidelity data is collected regularly.
  • Implementation data is collected for a variety of practices, programs, and systems.
  • Data meetings are scheduled and planned in advance and held regularly.

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CEEDAR Center

This module, the second in a series of three, discusses implementing an evidence-based practice or program with fidelity (est. completion time: 1 hour).

CEEDAR Center

This module, the third in a series of three, examines how to evaluate whether an evidence-based practice is effective for the young children or students with whom you are working (est. completion time: 2 hours).

National Center on Intensive Intervention

Use these tools to implement RTI with fidelity.

Data-based Decision Making

Data-based decision making involves establishing routines and procedures (i.e. decision rules) for making decisions about student needs and supports based on data. Data teams meet regularly to establish and implement these decision-making routines and procedures. They use data to compare and contrast the adequacy of the core curriculum and the effectiveness of different instructional and behavioral strategies.

Indicators of Success

  • Data teams include representation from the following: General education, special education, administration, and related service providers.
  • There are clearly defined rules and procedures in place for making decisions based on data about the types of reading supports students receive at your school.
  • Families are involved in the data review process.

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Doing What Works

This chart from the National Center on Response to Intervention identifies screening tools by content area and rates each tool based on classification accuracy, generalizability, reliability, validity, disaggregated data for diverse populations, and efficiency.

National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII)

This tools chart is intended to assist educators and families in becoming informed consumers who can select assessment tools that meet standards for technical rigor and address their specific needs.

English Learner Institute for Teaching Excellence (ELITE)

These professional development tools support schools in implementing structured data meetings at key assessment points throughout the year for all educators serving English learners and monthly for core (Tier I) classroom teachers.

CEEDAR Center

This module, the second in a series on intensive intervention, offers information on making data-based instructional decisions. Specifically, the resource discusses collecting and analyzing progress monitoring and diagnostic assessment data. (est. completion time: 3 hours).

What Works Clearinghouse

This guide recommends setting a clear goal for schoolwide data use and provides options to help educators use data effectively as they monitor students' academic progress and evaluate instructional practices.

National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII)

A series of tools to help school MTSS teams establish efficient and effective individual student data meetings.

National Center on Intensive Intervention

This webpage describes how to use data in an RTI framework.

CEEDAR Center

This module, the second in a series on intensive intervention, offers information on making data-based instructional decisions. Specifically, the resource discusses collecting and analyzing progress monitoring and diagnostic assessment data. (est. completion time: 3 hours).